This is corroborated by the fact that the subject of the fugue, and certain passages (such as bars 12–15), are evidently inspired by string music. He sees it as a youth work, composed before 1708, that with its underdeveloped fugue is stylistically eclectic but unified without breaking continuity. The Toccata and Fugue in D minor, BWV 565, is a piece of organ music written, according to its oldest extant sources, by Johann Sebastian Bach. At the time it was however common practice to create fugues on other composers' themes. 120–137. Bach?" Its first uses in sound film included the 1931 film Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and the 1934 film The Black Cat. [19][114], The 1950 film Sunset Boulevard used BWV 565 as a joking reference to the horror genre. He considers it an early work, probably composed for testing the technical qualities of a new organ. [52] Schweitzer's first recording of the piece was issued in 1935. [3][6], Ringk's manuscript does not use a separate stave for the pedal part, which was common in the 18th century (notes to be played on the pedal were indicated by "p." being written at the start of the sequence). A single dramatic ground-thought unites the daring passage work of the toccata, that seems to pile up like wave on wave; and in the fugue the intercalated passages in broken chords only serve to make the climax all the more powerful. [97] The reworked edition of this book, in one volume, appeared in 2003, and devotes more pages to discussing the authenticity and possible prior versions of BWV 565. The last bars are played Molto adagio, and the piece ends with a minor plagal cadence. [34] In the words of Jean-Claude Zehnder, who was sympathetic towards the violin version reconstruction: "The matter still remains open, despite the scholarly discourse that began in 1981. Williams sees stylistic matches with Pachelbel, with the north German organ school, and with the Italian violin school, but sees various unusual features of the composition as well. There are, however, few organ pieces with so much spirit and drive, and why should not a genius like Bach, in youthful high spirits, have produced this unique work, which is in some respects half a century before its time and which could achieve a place as one of the most beloved compositions in all of music history? [104] The score of Stokowski's arrangement was published in 1952. Other commentators ignored the authenticity doubts or considered the attribution issue undecided. [116] Shortened to two minutes in length, BWV 565 was used as the introductory theme for the French animation Once Upon a Time... Man, in 26 episodes between 1978 and 1981. [123] The same research indicated that large portions of the Fugue were consistent with the style of Johann Ludwig Krebs, but with more than half of the Fugue more likely composed by J. S. Oskar Fischinger suggested to Stokowski that abstract animations could be combined with his orchestral version of BWV 565, but the Disney studios were slow to accept the idea. Consequently, the name of the piece was again given in Italian as Toccata con Fuga, and the piece was again written down in D Dorian (i.e. He calls the Toccata "brilliantly rhapsodical", more or less follows Spitta in the description of the fugue, and is most impressed by the coda: "It would be hard to find a concluding passage more imposing or more absolutely adapted to the requirements of the instrument than this coda." Bach also transcribed the Fugue movement of Sonata in G minor for solo violin, BWV 1001, as the second half of Prelude and Fugue in D minor for organ, BWV 539. [8] Ringk's copy abounds in Italian tempo markings, fermatas (a characteristic feature of Ringk's copies) and staccato dots, all very unusual features for pre–1740 German music. Corrections? Spitta had already remarked on the similarity between a passage in BWV 565 and one in the harpsichord Prelude BWV 921, Robert Marshall compares the continuation patterns and sequences of the harpsichord Toccata BWV 911, and the Fugue theme of the harpsichord Toccata BWV 914, with the same of BWV 565. The first publication of the piece, in the Bach Revival era, was in 1833, through the efforts of Felix Mendelssohn, who also performed the piece in an acclaimed concert in 1840. The composition has stylistic characteristics from both schools: the stylus phantasticus,[9] and other north German characteristics are most apparent. [13] Immediately after the final subject entry, the fugue resolves to a sustained B♭ major chord. Symphonic transcription published from the library of Leopold Stokowski. [78][79] From the 1950s to the first decades of the 21st century, there were half a dozen recordings of Tausig's piano version,[80] and several dozen of Busoni's. It then spirals toward the bottom, where a diminished seventh chord appears (which actually implies a dominant chord with a minor 9th against a tonic pedal), built one note at a time. The piece was originally composed for violin, not necessarily by Bach (that would explain its "simplicity"); It was later transcribed for the organ, not necessarily by Bach (that would explain its "modernity"). 157–171 in Stauffer/May 1986. [7], The Toccata begins with a single-voice flourish in the upper ranges of the keyboard, doubled at the octave. [4] In his book on BWV 565, which he expanded in 1998 to counter some of the criticisms it received, Claus also dismisses the prior version options suggested by Williams, noting that the toccata was an unknown genre for violin solo compositions of the time). Pirro supposes Bach had success with this music in the smaller German courts he visited. [19] Then it took about a century from its first publication as a little known organ composition by Johann Sebastian Bach to becoming one of the signature pieces of the composer. The piece opens with a toccata section, followed by a fugue that ends in a coda. [48] Franz Liszt adopted the piece into his organ repertoire. From Hilgenfeldt in 1850, to Elgar in the 1920s, to Basso in the late 1970s, the extraordinary popularity of the piece seems to have taken scholars and musicians by surprise. 4", as "BGA Volume XV p. 267", as "Novello VI, 1", or without "Dorian", to distinguish it from the Toccata and Fugue with the same key signature. [19], In 1982, David Humphreys suggested that BWV 565 may have been composed and/or arranged by Kellner, or by someone from the circle around Kellner. Bach: Für Pianoforte zum Concertvortrag bearbeitet, Bach-Grainger: Piano Transcriptions of Bach's Works by Percy Grainger Discography, Bach-Friedman: Piano Transcriptions of Bach's Works by Ignaz Friedman Discography, Bach-Tausig: Piano Transcriptions of Bach's Works by Carl Tausig – Discography, Bach-Busoni: Piano Transcriptions of Bach's Works & Works inspired by Bach, by Ferruccio Busoni – Recordings, Part 2, Bach-Leonardi: Orchestral Arrangements/Transcriptions of Bach's Works by Leonidas Leonardi, Ormandy Conducts Bach Orchestral Transcriptions – PASC211, Bach-Sevitzky: Arrangements/Transcriptions of Bach's Works by Fabien Sevitzky, J. S. Bach: Toccata and Fugue in D Minor orchestrated by René Leibowitz, Bach-Cailliet: Arrangements/Transcriptions of Bach's Works by Lucien Cailliet, concert program for 5, 6 and 9 December 1968, "Allmusic – Vanessa-Mae: Charts & Awards – Billboard Singles", Johann Sebastian Bach. [88], Up to this point, none of the biographers seem to have given any special attention to BWV 565. [33], In 1980, Peter Williams wrote about BWV 565 in the first volume of his The Organ Music of J.S.Bach. Scholars differ as to when it was composed. [131] Williams suggested that the piece may have been created by another composer who must have been born in the beginning of the 18th century, since details of style (such as triadic harmony, spread chords, and the use of solo pedal) may indicate post–1730, or even post–1750 idioms. Stauffer, George Boyer; May, Ernest (1986). By the time Disney's Fantasia was released in 1940, the animations accompanying BWV 565 had been made semi-abstract, although Fischinger's original idea that the performance of the music start with showing Stokowski directing his orchestra was preserved. He considers that the notes of the piece are not too difficult to play, but that an organist performing the work is primarily challenged by interpretation. [109], BWV 565 was used as film music well before the sound film era, becoming a cliché to illustrate horror and villainy. Basso warns against seeing too much in the composition. [18][97][117][118] They said it was stylistically too close to the galant style of the later 18th century to be an early 18th century composition. In the 1942 cinema release of the film by RKO, the Toccata and Fugue was cut entirely, only to return in a 1946 re-release., AllMusic - Toccata and Fugue, for organ in D minor, BWV 565. In the later copies the work is named for instance "Adagio" and "Fuga" (for the respective parts of the work), or "Toccata" for the work as a whole. [96] His description of the piece echoes earlier storm analogies. [76][77] Ignaz Friedman recorded the piano version he had published in 1944. [42] In 1912, BWV 565 was published in the second volume, containing works of Bach's "first master period". Some scholars who analysed the composition's counterpoint felt it was substandard. Williams, Peter F. (July 1981). Jeremy Barham (Fall-Winter 2008). 291–304, Johann Sebastian Bach: Neue Ausgabe sämtlicher Werke, "Composer attribution by quantifying compositional strategies" pp. The concert was very well received by the critics, among them Robert Schumann, who admired the work's famous opening as an example of Bach's sense of humor.

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